The Rise of the Silent Traveler: Reaching Out to the Mobile-First Travel Consumer

by James O'Brien + Skift Team - Jul 2014

Skift Research Take

The silent traveler turns to their mobile devices, instead of in-person interaction, for highly personalized responses to in-trip challenges. In this report, we examine the changes that these customers are creating across industry verticals — and we look at the important opportunities they now present to travel brands that can adapt to their dynamic and evolving expectations.

Report Overview

The implications of an increasingly independent, mobile-equipped consumer are far-reaching for every vertical in the travel industry. Even as airlines, hotels, and in-destination attractions and offerings continue to rely upon meaningful interactions with their customer, a significant segment of travelers are turning first, in new and powerful ways, to their devices to solve trip-related challenges that have historically been resolved by in-person experiences.

From booking to getting there, to what the consumer does in-destination, this silent traveler, as we have termed the model of their behavior and choices, is typically both young and possessed of significant spending power in the marketplace. And while their move to mobile as a first choice in solving travel problems is driving a range of changes for brands, these consumers are simultaneously creating new emphases on more complex and highly personalized experiences at the times when they do turn to on-site staff.

Emerging from this mix of pulling away and drawing close, for the silent traveler and travel brands, are new models and approaches for both customer relations and local discovery. As brands and third-party developers seek to capture the attention of the self reliant, digitally savvy traveler on mobile screens — bringing about a spectrum of opportunities in the realm of apps, ad tech, and hybrid approaches — the conversation is turning to how the very devices that stand to take some tasks away from the human-to-human experience can perhaps ultimately more intimately connect the travel industry to its customers throughout every trip.

Executive Summary

The implications of an increasingly independent, mobile-equipped consumer are far-reaching for every vertical in the travel industry. Even as airlines, hotels, and in-destination attractions and offerings continue to rely upon meaningful interactions with their customer, a significant segment of travelers are turning first, in new and powerful ways, to their devices to solve trip-related challenges that have historically been resolved by in-person experiences.

From booking to getting there, to what the consumer does in-destination, this silent traveler, as we have termed the model of their behavior and choices, is typically both young and possessed of significant spending power in the marketplace. And while their move to mobile as a first choice in solving travel problems is driving a range of changes for brands, these consumers are simultaneously creating new emphases on more complex and highly personalized experiences at the times when they do turn to on-site staff.

Emerging from this mix of pulling away and drawing close, for the silent traveler and travel brands, are new models and approaches for both customer relations and local discovery. As brands and third-party developers seek to capture the attention of the self reliant, digitally savvy traveler on mobile screens — bringing about a spectrum of opportunities in the realm of apps, ad tech, and hybrid approaches — the conversation is turning to how the very devices that stand to take some tasks away from the human-to-human experience can perhaps ultimately more intimately connect the travel industry to its customers throughout every trip.

Introduction

Rise of silent traveler introduction

We know that today’s traveler is deeply connected to mobile devices — to his or her tablet, smartphone, and whatever comes next in the form of technology that one can carry or wear on one’s body. In the past two years alone, according to a recent TripAdvisor report, 46% of U.S. travelers used their tablets during their time in-destination, and significantly more (86%) of the polled respondents said their cell phone is an essential part of every journey.1

Research suggests that these travelers are not simply using their mobile devices to keep tabs on work, or read e-mail, or download a film to watch for the evening. Rather, they are looking for flight information and the ability to check-in — and out — without waiting in a line at either the airport or their hotel, they are looking for restaurant reservations, and they are looking to discover what to do at the places they visit.

This type of customer, passenger, and guest is using mobile tech to augment and even replace the traditional in-person customer service on which airlines, hospitality, and tourism have historically based many of their critical touch points. A vanguard within a new era, fueled by new access to an Internet full of information, from these consumers emerges a new model — the silent traveler.
Mobile Devices Traveler Activity
The implications are significant. The silent traveler represents not only a challenge when it comes to brands preserving those key touch points — and by so doing helping to both ensure customer satisfaction and also understand evolving customer trends — but companies are also facing a shifting landscape when it comes to customer relations management, reputation management, and identifying opportunities to engage and increase traffic throughout the destinations they serve.

Additionally, as this emergent traveler falls silent about some things, about other experiences and circumstances, they do not. As it turns out, the technology-savvy consumer is interacting with other individuals during their trip — via social media and user-generated content they are sharing experiences with past and future customers like themselves. And when the silent traveler turns to a brand’s in-person representatives for assistance? They seek a focused, highly personalized, and effective response. The stakes, for brands, are high.

Poised to command renewed attention within all of these contexts, the silent traveler has arrived. To understand them better, we turn to brands, experts, and examples of the strategies and tools that are already evolving to serve them well.

Defining the silent traveler

Defining the silent traveler

If one wants to frame and comprehend what is important to brands about what the silent traveler represents, start with the question of defining them as a consumer. Who is the silent traveler? What are the details that we can draw from available data about their demographics and tendencies?

Travelers Solving Problems First, under our posited model, the silent traveler is a customer who is conversant and comfortable with online and mobile functionality, all manner of it, and in a first-screen capacity. While the silent traveler undoubtedly turns at times to a dot-com channel — checking information pre-departure, or planning some part of the day from their desk in a hotel room — chiefly they are among the individuals for whom tablets and smartphones solve in-destination quandaries much of the time.

Second, the silent traveler has identified those digital tools that ensure a degree of self reliance that goes beyond mere map and compass assistance. That is, with mobile apps and other instruments they seek to virtually replicate numerous tasks that used to require another human being’s assistance while in-destination. The digitally equipped silent traveler can independently research, locate, bargain for, purchase — and, yes, review — what is needed and experienced throughout nearly every step of every journey.

Gender and Points of Origin

To further identify and define the silent traveler, Skift conducted a survey of more than 1,500 consumers, in June 2014. Based on their responses, it is clear that age-group is one factor highly relevant to understanding the silent traveler as an identity and a type.

We see that key to the definition of the silent traveler, in this sample, is that 25–34-year-olds turn to technology in larger numbers than any other demographic, overall — by a margin of almost 10%. In that category, mobile search and social media account for nearly 40% of the problem-solving choices. The number of slightly younger and slightly older travelers falls off a bit when it comes to these characteristics, and what can be categorized as Boomer generation travelers appear to represent travelers still in a primarily human interface frame of mind.

Apps and the Connected Traveler

The top five uses of mobile apps by travelers who are planning a trip, as recorded in a 2013 survey by TripAdvisor, are as follows.2

  • Travel inspiration apps
  • Weather apps
  • Hotel or accommodation
  • interaction apps
  • Airline apps
  • Activity-related apps

However, our snapshot of the ways the silent traveler uses mobile technology to solve problems during a trip also changes along lines of gender and points of origin — urban, suburban, or rural — particularly between the ages of 25 and 44.

Within the segments we can now identify as core to our model of the silent traveler, there lie opportunities for brands. Taking into account the approaches to travel that our higher-ranking demographics indicate, brands that can prepare proactive strategies to meet this present — and likely coming — wave of silent travelers will access a key avenue to successful adaptation, and a pathway to future rewarding interactions
with the customer.

Some travel brands have already enacted plans of outreach to technologically self-reliant consumers. In the next section, we turn to examples of how they’re doing that, and how their experiences can illuminate in even greater detail what the silent traveler desires.

Reaching the silent traveler

Source: Flickr, mroach

Source: Flickr, mroach

In an age of change, as the self-reliant and digitally inclined traveler stands to alter many of the ways travel brands think about customer interactions, new questions arise.

For example, what becomes of the functions performed by an airline’s check-in counter and the hotel’s front desk? What of the concierge and other forms of in-person visitor assistance? What can brands do to maintain historically important touch points with their passengers and guests — key to both ensuring that experiences are satisfying in the present, and also important for gleaning critical strategy-fueling information about the customer, going forward?

The answer, according to business leaders from different travel verticals, is to do more than just react to the changing nature of the mobile connected customer. It is to build a proactive and highly personalized experience for each of them, acknowledging not only what is different about travel, in 2014, but also giving attention to the expectations that are still constants, even among the demographics we would include in our definition of “silent.”

Terminal matters: the silent traveler and airlines

Delta is one example of a brand that’s engaging with the silent traveler, fostering the kind
of experiences such consumers seek. Since the airline launched its mobile app, two and a half years ago, smartphone- and tablet-equipped customers now generate some 20% of the company’s airport check-ins.

“It’s a reality of travel, today, that customers are very digitally reliant,” said Paul Skrbec, a Delta spokesperson. “They continue to want to be in control of their choices and options in an increasingly mobile way, and the rise to customer adoption has been really, really aggressive. It’s really grown rapidly.”
Apps and Kiosks in airport In a way similar to services offered by numerous airline brands, in 2014, after the check-in process is complete, Delta’s travelers — silent or otherwise — can continue to have a device-primary experience via the app. Changes to schedules, shifting gate numbers, almost anything that represents an alteration to the details of a flight, come to the passenger as push messages and alerts.

This task-reassignment, as the airline sees it, equals customer-service success. Not only are Delta travelers spending less time in potentially frustrating situations, according to Skrbec, but when they do need in-person help they stand to achieve a more focused experience from the company’s on-site staff. That is, lessening the volume of requests for otherwise app-driven information means that a given desk or phone line should have more time and attention to give to more complicated pre-flight issues.

“Customers who have more complex types of transactions,” said Skrbec, “that type of customer requires a little more time, a little bit more intervention from our staff. And so, by not having a large group of customers always going immediately to a desk — or calling reservations — that allows us to better serve to those more high-touch types of activities.”

Of course, Delta isn’t the only brand working in this way. And one can’t discount other points of self-reliant action for travelers approaching an airport’s gates. While the industry might be deeply invested in mobile experiences, it is also engaging its customers with in-place digital hardware.
Airport apps for silent p2Airport apps for silent p1
As for Delta’s vision of the future, particularly when it comes to its mobile experience and the silent traveler, Skrbec said that next-step projects include connecting passengers’ social data to their travel data. The traveler bound for a new location, in this scenario, would then receive details about whether contacts in their social-media milieu have been to that destination before. They could see, for example, where a colleague ate the last time through town, and from what they wrote about it the silent traveler can also see what they thought of the meal.

“That’s really adding value to the travel experience,” said Skrbec. “Through their own social network, we can bring some of that reference material to their experience. We expect to see that idea continue to grow.”

Hotels and the silent traveler

Source: Flickr, WittIstanbulSuites

Source: Flickr, WittIstanbulSuites

If one asks leaders in the hotel industry, the silent traveler represents an opportunity of the kind that hospitality hasn’t seen in decades.

“Because of connectivity levels, because of the adoption of the smartphone, because of the data that is available — and people’s willingness to share data,” said Chris Silcock, senior vice president of Commercial Services at Hilton Worldwide, “we, right now, have the opportunity to reimagine the hospitality experience, combining the physical and the digital.”

Just two years into a series of new digital and mobile programs, Silcock said Hilton Worldwide’s customer service is indeed addressing elements of the demographic our silent-traveler model represents. Hilton Worldwide is well aware of the consumer that prefers search and/or prefers social media when it comes to in-destination decisions.

Consider what its product Hilton Suggests does in this space. Launched in 2012, the company’s social-media based service not only allows a mobile-equipped customer to ask questions — for example, what should they do in an area they’re visiting3 but, according to Silcock, it also allows Hilton to proactively scan social chatter for problems that might arise at one of the brand’s properties. These brand listeners are especially looking for the kind of challenges that the silent traveler might not bring directly to Hilton’s staff.
In Person Exp and Guests p2In Person Exp and Guests p1
“Our team was monitoring, and they actually heard from somebody who was in their room, in one of our hotels, who’d shared socially that they had an issue with their air conditioning,” Silcock said. “They didn’t call the front desk. They didn’t talk to the hotel. But we heard them through our Hilton Suggests service and that team engaged — and we went to that customer in the hotel to resolve that problem.

“This highlighted for us how customers are changing,” he continued. “Even if they’re in the hotel, they won’t necessarily always speak to the hotel.”

At Marriott, changes are also under way. Anecdotally speaking, since launching its mobile check-in app, in August 2013, said Matthew Carroll, vice president of Global Brand Management for the company, front-desk interactions are shifting. It is a scenario that Delta employees might well recognize.

“As we see our hotels spend less time having to physically check our guests into a room, or physically check them out, it’s freeing up our hosts to take care of customers better, and to deal with more complicated service issues,” Carroll said.

As for who’s making the switch to mobile, Carroll said the demographics, in part, manifest two ways.

“We’re seeing it with Gen X and Y, broadly, and then we’re also seeing it with our frequent business travelers,” he said. “Their ability to be able to go to their device first is very powerful for them.”

Discovery: the silent traveler in-destination

Once the traveler is on the ground, at their destination, and out and about, they continue making choices. For brands, giving the self-reliant customer something they want is deeply tied to the notion of accelerating and empowering the choices they make. Finding a way into that decision-making process is key to capturing the consumer’s business.

If there’s an illustrative space where mobile can further expand the silent traveler’s experience, it might well be the realm of discovery-oriented resources. The number of consumers who’ve turned to their devices to locate in-destination options has nearly doubled in recent years.4
Mobile App adoption at Marriott
Among the value propositions that stand to place local discovery at the head of the pack for mobile-first consumers, curation is certainly part of the equation.

Players entering that arena, seeking to direct users to attractions and ideas within a destination, include The Leisure Pass Group. Linking their attractions-access passcards to city-specific curated mobile apps, the company has recently moved into the area of providing self-reliant travelers with the means of getting around as well.

In 2013, its card-and-app services grew to include a staff-free swipe-and-go system for 60-minute bike rentals.5

Consumer impact marriott

Then, there is Findery, which, after two years of beta testing, allows digitally inclined travelers to place in-app notes and photos of interest within maps of destinations. The idea is that Findery’s user base will have an ever growing local’s-eye-view of where they’re at — a crowd-sourced concierge in the palm of their hand.

“If anything, the problem could be that there is too much content to sift through — which is a good problem to have,” wrote Colleen Taylor, in a 2014 review of Findery. To help resolve that situation, she noted, “Findery also employs an algorithm to promote the most relevant notes to you when you go to a certain location.”6

Google Field Trip provides similar community created content — also potentially attractive to the silent traveler. And it, too, is seeking to overcome early-stage challenges of plowing a wide spectrum of information into its interface while avoiding the kind of information glut that Taylor cautioned against. There’s also the potential problem of inaccurate user generated notes. Field Trip allows travelers to flag these.7 Self-reliance, in these cases, comes with some responsibility.

Travelers and local search Still, as Damian Rollison notes, writing about hyper local search, it is sometimes the tried and true methods that provide significant bang for one’s silent-traveling buck.

“Searching Google for ‘unusual roadside attractions in Northern California’ is much more effective than any search term you might come up with in a local app,” he wrote, in a recent article for Street Fight about travel and local search. “Specifically because it leads to numerous curated results on travel and news sites, and curation is still the best substitute for this type of local knowledge.”8

Spontanious Self p2Spontanious Self p1

Short notice is another value proposition that counts, in-destination. TripAdvisor appears to understand this, partnering with the GetYourGuide app, in 2011. Its book-now button allows TripAdvisor users to select “an attraction based on millions of reviews and opinions on the site, they may click on this button, or tap it using a smartphone on-the-go, to quickly and easily book the excursion of their choice.”9

For the self-reliant traveler, HotelTonight also promises an on-the-go experience. One can reach for a new reservation, day of, and the app also allows users to view a seven-day window of room-rate estimates and availability.

“The hotels really like this, too,” Sam Shank, co-founder and CEO, told TechCrunch. “It helps fill the rooms up and [brings] guests that are incremental to them by giving them more ways to be spontaneous.” 10 Like HotelTonight does in the hospitality space, restaurant-reservation apps may also have a play to make for the silent traveler’s attention.

Apps such as Shout suggest a self-reliant problem-solving mechanism that can fit the bill for an in-the-moment experience. In a peer-to-peer system, Shout users find diners who already have a hard-to-get reservation, but who are willing to sell it for, say, $35–$70. The buyer pays the seller, in-app, and the transfer of the table is handled by Shout.11 For the silent traveler, the need for the well connected concierge — or even the notion of negotiating with the maître d’— is replaced by a guaranteed transaction via their smartphone’s screen.

Additional avenues to the silent traveler

The silent traveler, it turns out, is a notion that, like its human iteration, is still very much on the move.

Industry response to the silent traveler is not confined to the apps and other digital access points that brands pursue, on-site and in-destination. There are also approaches emerging in other ways, including the possibility that advertisers and tourism boards can, at least in part, directly reach a self-reliant, digital-first consumer during their visit. Other, hybrid concepts — pairing old and new methodologies — are on the horizon as well.

Outreach: ad tech and the silent traveler

When we talk about placing digital ads on the screens of travelers at the right time and in the right place, we’re typically talking about that happening during the planning stages of a traveler’s trip. But the underlying ideas of algorithmic and location-sensitive systems — the kind that drive the programmatic space, for example — turn out have applications in tourism’s effort to reach the silent traveler in-destination.

“It’s the hospitality industry’s and the tourism industry’s opportunity to serve clients digitally, while they’re in the market, right now,” said Cree Lawson, founder and CEO of Arrivalist. “But if they don’t act quickly, sites like Yelp and local advertising agencies, and local media companies, are going to swarm in and take the opportunities away from the hospitality marketers and the tourism boards — who have previously served the in-market traveler.”

An example of how travel can find its way to the mobile-savvy consumer starts in Atlantic City. Lawson and company spearheaded what he refers to as connected-traveler ads — proprietary ad-targeting tech that delivers impressions to tourists in a destination, specifically individuals who are not residents. This helps to eliminate wasted reach — the idea being that some 90% of delivered inventory ends up in front of locals when tourists are the intended mark. And what happened when Arrivalist deployed this approach reveals something else, something potentially crucial, about the silent traveler during their time in a destination.

Arrivalist’s mobile ad-work in New Jersey included an offer of a free T-shirt at a nearby visitor center — and this was the only way the offer was broadcast. As travelers entered the center and asked for a shirt, the staff tracked names and the number of promotions claimed. One month later, Arrivalist measured the results. There had been hundreds of click-throughs on the ad, each revealing the offer, but at the visitor center, significantly more — in excess of 1,100 — shirts had been given out. Turns out the ad recipients had spread word of the promotion to others, to consumers that the digital impression had never reached.

“What we did not anticipate was the power of word-of-mouth from the people who saw the original ad,” said Lawson. “The word-of-mouth multiplier was about five times the number of people who saw the ad and walked in and requested a T-shirt.”

In this way, activating the silent traveler is a strategy that ad-tech using brands stand to explore further, and with which they can potentially extract further value from a given campaign.

“The silence we’re assuming, when it comes to this kind of traveler, is between the industry and the individual, not between two separate individuals,” Lawson said. “The person may be a very vocal traveler to other travelers, even if they are silent with the hotel at which their staying.”

Hybrid service iterations

As travel brands push further into the self-reliant world of the silent traveler, one phenomenon evolving from the particular needs and wants of the consumer in question might turn out to be something like a return to the industry’s customer-service roots. In other words, travelers and brands could very well find themselves reuniting in much the way they started as a pairing, but in a newly digital and mobile context.

“Now, what we’re looking at, and testing, and moving toward scaling, is what we call a service-request” application, said Matthew Carroll, of Marriott.

The application is meant to create two way exchanges between a traveler and a Marriott hotel, but one that is conducted through their mobile device. Not on the phone. Not at a desk. Marriott’s goal is an in-app process that allows a traveler to resolve questions and problems in their space, on their time, and with the same tools they’ve used to navigate arrival, check-in, and discovery. It’s a hybrid experience. The brand is testing an early-phase iteration at some 15 properties. If it works, it could suggest next steps for the industry — a conduit to a third alternative for the silent traveler: an experience that combines on-demand technology with in-person, personalized resolutions.

“I think that’s very much in line with where we’re going,” Carroll said, “to get that two-way dialogue through the app. We’re continuing to focus on how we can make the app more powerful.”

As the silent traveler continues their journey, it may be that the answer to that question lies not only in having a device on hand, diminishing the need for in-person consultations, but also that a brand’s app can create even deeper dialogues to come. In that sense, travel’s conversation with the silent traveler might be just beginning.

The Rise of the Silent Traveler: What does it mean for Travel Buyers?

The lines between consumer and business experiences are blurring and the mobile-first mentality is increasingly common on the business trip. What can Travel Management Professionals do to address these new trends and opportunities? Here are a few suggestions:

Be relevant:

Gone are the days of sending a company memo with your 18-page company travel policy and expecting travelers to read it. Attention spans are limited to 140 characters (give or take) and we have become accustomed to targeted messages while searching the web or shopping online. To get your travelers’ attention, your message needs to be extremely personalized.

  • Is your travel policy woven into your travelers’ booking experience to help guide them to the right choices?
  • Do you have a solution that allows your travelers to book on mobile and still be in policy?
  • Do you have the right data to be able to reach out to your travelers in a targeted way to help drive compliance (e.g. “Bob, we noticed you called an agent Tuesday to book a trip to Denver. Is there a reason you didn’t book online?”)?

Get social:

Chances are your travelers are using social media daily. According to a June 2014 Skift survey, nearly 40% of individuals between the ages of 25-34 prefer to leverage social channels to resolve a travel problem.

  • Are you able to leverage social media to reach your travelers? Some of our clients have had success with blogging or opening a Twitter account exclusively for their travelers.
  • Are you paying attention to how your travelers are interacting with your travel partners via social, like your Travel Management Company, Air, Car, Hotel and Rail partners?
  • How should you advise your travelers to leverage social media to resolve travel challenges in a way that aligns with your corporate social policy?

Be vocal:

The proliferation of mobile and social clearly brings both opportunities and challenges. It is so important to work closely with your key travel partners to ensure your travel program is keeping pace. Here are a few questions to consider:

  • How would you like for your key travel partners to handle social outreach from your stranded travelers?
  • Your travelers will not accept a poor enterprise solution when they have come to expect the best consumer products and user experiences. How are your corporate travel partners evolving to meet the new demands of the silent traveler?
  • What can your travel partners do to ensure your travels are productive and compliant on the road?

Insights and Strategies

  • The silent traveler exists in a social space. Managing a brand’s interaction with the silent traveler is not only about providing engaging, effective digital tools and ensuring highly personalized responses when the consumer seeks an in-person interaction. The silent traveler also talks, online. They share and express their experiences. Reaching them, and understanding what the self-reliant customer needs, is about proactively “listening” to this exchange. And then it’s about proactively solving those problems, either on site or one-to-one in the digital space
  • The silent traveler represents short- and long-term opportunities. If the data tells us that the silent traveler’s demographic is largely composed of consumers ages 25–44, then that suggests a pair of opportunities for brands — one at present, one to come. The first is connected to the results of recent research that shows younger — ages 20–30, by Wyse Travel Confederation’s measure13 — travelers currently account for some $217 billion of $1.088 trillion in tourism spending, worldwide.14 The second opportunity lies in the possibility that today’s travel-enthusiast young consumer will emulate their parents’ journey-making habits. Baby Boomer travelers, 45-plus in age, purchase 80% of luxury travel, today.15 Making inroads to the silent traveler, now, might well mean an investment that pays off in the short and long term for brands.
  • Any traveler could be a silent traveler. As Egencia’s survey revealed in the section about hotels and the silent traveler, providing self-reliance based alternatives to a customer who’s accustomed to — and even states a desire for — in-person interactions can change the game. If a digital and self-reliant experience can save consumers time, in-destination, then even the traveler who is vocal about wanting the human representative might become a silent traveler, one who revises their approach to that goal or task and prefers to do it on their own.

Endnotes

  1. “Social Media, Smartphones & Tablets Now Essential Travel Tools for U.S. Travelers, According to New TripAdvisor Survey of Mobile & Social Trends,” TripAdvisor (November, 18, 2013). 
  2. “Social Media, Smartphones & Tablets Now Essential Travel Tools for U.S. Travelers, According to New TripAdvisor Survey of Mobile & Social Trends,” TripAdvisor (November, 18, 2013). 
  3. Johnson, Britnee. “Hilton Is Where the People Are,” Digital Royalty (2012). Retrieved at http://thedigitalroyalty.com/2012/hilton-is-where-the-people-are/
  4. Rollison, Damian. “The Good and Bad of Local Discovery on Our Summer Road Trip,” Street Fight (June 27, 2013). 
  5. “Technology powers new tourism wheels,” Leisure Pass Group (February 13, 2013). 
  6. Taylor, Colleen. “After 2 Years In Beta, Findery Launches Its Geo-Tagged Story Sharing App On iOS Worldwide,” TechCrunch (March 6, 2014).
  7. Boehret, Katherine. “Oh, the Places Your Phone Will Find,” All Things D (December 3, 2013).
  8. Rollison, Damian. “The Good and Bad of Local Discovery on Our Summer Road Trip,” Street Fight (June 27, 2013). 
  9. “GetYourGuide Announces Partnership with TripAdvisor at ITB Berlin,” GetYourGuide (March 10, 2011).
  10. Ha, Anthony. “HotelTonight Adds Projected Pricing And Availability To Its Last-Minute Booking App,” TechCrunch (April 15, 2014). 
  11. Harris, Jenn. “Shout smartphone app can put coveted dinner reservations up for sale,” Los Angeles Times (May 12, 2014). 
  12. Shankman, Samantha. “Five travel startups attempt to commoditize spontaneity,” Skift (June 17, 2013). 
  13. “NEW HORIZONS III EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: A global study of the youth and student traveller,” Wyse Travel Confederation (September 2013). 
  14. Mohn, Tanya. “Travel Boom: Young Tourists Spent $217 Billion Last Year, More Growth Than Any Other Group,” Forbes (October 7, 2013). 
  15. Padberg, Nancy Shonka. “Consumers Ages 45+ Love to Travel, Spend Most Time And Money Online,” MediaPost Blogs; Engage: Boomers (May 21, 2012).